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    Re: Advance LOP of High Speed Vessel
    From: Gary LaPook
    Date: 2012 Nov 9, 02:04 -0800
    Here is an updated motion of the observer table including values up to 15 knots and 17 and 21 knots for use with the data from the Atlantic crossing.


    --- On Thu, 11/8/12, Gary LaPook <garylapook@pacbell.net> wrote:

    From: Gary LaPook <garylapook@pacbell.net>
    Subject: [NavList] Re: Advance LOP of High Speed Vessel
    To: NavList@fer3.com
    Date: Thursday, November 8, 2012, 7:27 PM

    Here is the explanation of how to use the tables I posted.

    Now let's talk about the "Motion Of the Observer" (MOO) adjustment. Every fix in the air is a
    running fix because the aircraft moves a considerable distance between the first and last sight.
    Assuming the normal eight minute spacing between the first and last shot, a slow
    airplane, say 100 knots, will have traveled 14 NM while a 450 knot plane will have traveled 60
    NM. In marine practice the navigator will advance the earlier LOPs to cross them with the last
    shot when plotting a running fix. The MOO adjustment accomplishes the same thing.
    Due to the slow speeds and the short period between the shots, this is not necessary for normal
    marine fixes,

    As an example of how this works, consider a running fix on a ship. A sun shot taken at 1000Z
    results in an observed altitude, Ho, of 35º 55'. After doing the normal sight reduction the
    navigator ends up with an Hc of 35º 45' at the chosen “assumed position” (A.P) and an azimuth
    (Zn) of 130º. This results in an intercept of 10 NM toward the body, 130º. To plot this LOP you
    draw the azimuth line from the A.P and measure off the 10 NM intercept toward the sun and plot
    the LOP perpendicular to the Zn.

    Then, two hours later at 1200Z you take another altitude of the sun and to obtain a 1200Z
    running fix you must advance the 1000Z sun line to cross the 1200Z line. There are three ways to
    advance the LOP. First, you can pick any spot on the LOP and lay off a line in the direction of
    travel of the vessel, measure off the distance traveled along that line, make a mark there and then
    draw a line through that mark that is parallel  to the existing LOP and label the advanced LOP
    "1000-1200Z SUN." A second way is to advance each end of the LOP and then just draw a line
    through these two points, this avoids having to measure the azimuth when laying down the
    advanced line. The third way is to advance the original A.P and then from the ADVANCED A.P.
    plot the LOP using the ORIGINAL intercept and Zn. Any of these methods will produce the
    same advanced LOP.

    Now let's consider a simple case. Suppose the vessel's course is the same as the Zn, in this case,
    130º and the vessel's speed is 20 knots meaning it has traveled 40 NM in the two hour period. In
    this simple case we can just extend the Zn line an additional 40 NM and then plot the advanced
    LOP at that point. So,  the LOP is now 50 NM from the original A.P., the original 10 NM
    intercept plus the additional 40 NM that the vessel has traveled on the same course as the
    azimuth. Since we have no interest in actually plotting the 1000Z LOP, as we are just
    planning on having the 1200Z running fix, we can skip drawing the earlier LOP and just plot the
    advanced LOP by adding the distance traveled to the length of the original intercept to get a total
    intercept now of 50 NM and using that adjusted intercept to plot the advanced LOP using
    the ORIGINAL A.P. This method also creates the exact same advanced LOP as the other three
    methods. This last described procedure is how the MOO table is used.

    Look now at the MOO table, page 4. Assume now we are in a 300 knot airplane and the first
    sight is taken at 1152Z, eight minutes prior to the planned fix time. At the top of the column
    marked "300" knots ground speed you find the number "20" showing that the plane will travel 20
    NM (and so the altitude of the body should change by 20 minutes of arc) in a 4 minute period.
    Also notice that the top row of values are marked for a relative Zn of 000º meaning the body is
    directly ahead, as in our example. The plane will obviously travel 40NM in the normal 8 minute
    period from the first to the last shot of a three star fix. The sign convention is the same as
    that for the MOB table so simply draw a horizontal line across the center of the table and place a
    big minus symbol for the top half and a big plus mark for the bottom of the table. If the body is in
    front of you the sign is minus and the sign is plus if the body is behind you. With these markings
    we can take out of the table a minus 20' value for our example and double it to have a total MOO
    adjustment of minus 40' to apply to the Hc.

     Let's do the math. Hc of 35º 45' minus 40' gives us an adjusted Hc of 35º 05'. Since the Ho was
    35º 55' we now compute an intercept of 50 NM TOWARD and plot the LOP using the
    ORIGINAL A.P. and Zn  and this new adjusted intercept. You can see that this method produces
    the same advanced LOP as the previous methods.

    In the more normal case the course will not be the same as the Zn so the change in altitude will
    be less since the maximum change occurs when the body is straight ahead or directly behind the
    aircraft.  The change in altitude due to MOO is computed by the cosine of the
    difference between the Zn and the course ( "track" in the air), the relative Zn multiplied by the
    maximum change possible, the zero degree relative Zn case. So, in our example, if the track of
    the plane (course) were 070º then the relative Zn would be 60º (130̊-70̊=60̊) and we would
    look in the table for that relative Zn in the 300 knot column and take out a value of 10' which we
    would expect since the cosine of 60º is .5 so the MOO should be one half of the maximum
    possible for a 300 knot ground speed.


    --- On Thu, 11/8/12, Gary LaPook <garylapook@pacbell.net> wrote:

    From: Gary LaPook <garylapook@pacbell.net>
    Subject: [NavList] Re: Advance LOP of High Speed Vessel
    To: NavList@fer3.com
    Date: Thursday, November 8, 2012, 7:21 PM

    Here is another way to advance an LOP.





    --- On Thu, 11/8/12, Greg Rudzinski <gregrudzinski@yahoo.com> wrote:

    From: Greg Rudzinski <gregrudzinski@yahoo.com>
    Subject: [NavList] Re: Advance LOP of High Speed Vessel
    To: NavList@fer3.com
    Date: Thursday, November 8, 2012, 6:35 PM


    There are two ways which I use to advance lines of position.

    1. Advance the assumed position along the vessel heading using time, speed and distance tables or a pocket calculator. From the advance A.P. plot the azimuth and intercept.

    2. Advance the line of position from the course track intersection along the track line to the desired DR position.

    Greg Rudzinski

    [NavList] Advance LOP of High Speed Vessel
    From: Bruce J. Pennino
    Date: 8 Nov 2012 21:12

    I've followed the Trans-Atlantic postings closely. Thank you Kevin and all those working on the CN/ sight data. I realize I don't understand the most correct technique to advance the first LOP on a Universal Plotting Sheet based on DR.

    For example, for a vessel at 17 knots with the first LOP @ about 49 Deg N, and 3 hours between sights, the first LOP must be advanced in parallel fashion 51 NM . If vessel is going true N or S, LOP moves N or S 51 minutes of arc.

    If going true E or W, we know 51 NM is about 77 minutes of arc (at 49 N there is about 39.5 NM/degree of longitude). For DR we plot the new DR ---

    For all other courses, change x and y scales to NM and use vectors? Linear or trig approximation? I just don't seem to find the answer exactly in any of my three CN books. The proper technique is probably there, but I'm not seeing it!

    Thanks in advance.

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