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    Re: conning tower with a memorable number
    From: Lu Abel
    Date: 2009 Nov 11, 12:14 -0800

    Thanks, Frank!   I can see that with most of Russia's ocean access being 
    pretty far north, windowed refuges inside the sail would be pretty 
    welcome when on the surface..
    frankreed{at}HistoricalAtlas.com wrote:
    > Lu, you wrote:
    > "I've seen photos where it looks very much like there are windows in the sail."
    > You'll find these on older US subs, too. The open cockpit at the top of the 
    sail is used for coastal piloting. Somebody has to stand up there. There was 
    often a plastic windscreen. Since it might be miserable weather, designers 
    sometimes provided a protected station, with windows, inside the sail. Only 
    fish look through those windows when the ship is submerged. The sail floods.
    > You can see windows at the top of the sail on USS Growler here:
    > http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:USS_Growler_SSG-557_.jpg
    > Growler was launched in 1958. There's no conning tower inside the sail. 
    > More windows on USS Requin:
    > http://www.hnsa.org/ships/requin.htm
    > Requin was a typical WWII fleet sub, launched in 1945 and modified to "fleet 
    snorkel" configuration with a nearly square "North Atlantic sail" in 1959. 
    There is a conning tower inside occupying about half the length of the lower 
    third of the sail. That does not flood (normally) when the sub is submerged. 
    > The only US Navy sub that I am aware of that has "windows" below the 
    waterline is the exotic nuclear mini-sub NR-1 (it has wheels, too). It's also 
    quite possible that one or more of the "spy" subs (Halibut, Parche, Jimmy 
    Carter) had or have some underwater viewing portholes.
    > -FER
    > >
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