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    Re: conning tower with a memorable number
    From: Frank Reed
    Date: 2009 Nov 10, 17:29 -0800

    Lu, you wrote:
    "I've seen photos where it looks very much like there are windows in the sail."
    You'll find these on older US subs, too. The open cockpit at the top of the 
    sail is used for coastal piloting. Somebody has to stand up there. There was 
    often a plastic windscreen. Since it might be miserable weather, designers 
    sometimes provided a protected station, with windows, inside the sail. Only 
    fish look through those windows when the ship is submerged. The sail floods.
    You can see windows at the top of the sail on USS Growler here:
    Growler was launched in 1958. There's no conning tower inside the sail. 
    More windows on USS Requin:
    Requin was a typical WWII fleet sub, launched in 1945 and modified to "fleet 
    snorkel" configuration with a nearly square "North Atlantic sail" in 1959. 
    There is a conning tower inside occupying about half the length of the lower 
    third of the sail. That does not flood (normally) when the sub is submerged. 
    The only US Navy sub that I am aware of that has "windows" below the waterline 
    is the exotic nuclear mini-sub NR-1 (it has wheels, too). It's also quite 
    possible that one or more of the "spy" subs (Halibut, Parche, Jimmy Carter) 
    had or have some underwater viewing portholes.
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