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    Re: Wisconsin Maritime Museum
    From: Douglas Denny
    Date: 2009 Nov 10, 04:39 -0800

    Hello Gary,
    I am sure you will have had a pleasant and interesting trip across to Bermuda. 
    Lucky chap; I'm green with envy.I wonder if you had a sextant with you to 
    take sights for your amusement. You will have taken your Bygrave SR. with you 
    no doubt too.
    You say:-
    Reference Cotinho and Chichester:
    "....He used the "single LOP landfall procedure" to find the tiny
    Peter and Paul's rocks. This technique is usually attributed to
    Chichester for his 1931 flight across the Tasman Sea..."
    I think the offset landfall method might be attributed to Sir Francis 
    Chichester simply because he became famous, and became well known as a 
    navigator for his around the world single-handed trip in Gipsy Moth IV and 
    the description in some detail which describes this method of his flight 
    across the Tasman Sea in his book 'The Lonely Sea and the Sky'.  He was, 
    however, an unashamed egotist and self-publicist taking every opportunity to 
    promote himself.  (Which is understandable - it sells books which is what he 
    wanted I suppose).
    Actually the method is described earlier I believe in a book by Howard Gatty,  
    a Tasmanian navigator who was a pioneer in aviation navigation but less well 
    known.  I am fairly sure Chichester adopted and adapted Gatty's method for 
    his Tasman Sea flight.  
    Gatty, if I remember rightly, does not attribute the offset method to himself 
    but describes it as being a natural method used by natives for land 
    navigation across long distances to ensure a correct landfall. I am going on 
    memory here - which is suspect - if I can find the book (I have it somewhere) 
    I will scan the relevant bit.
    As Chichester was closely interested and involved with anything to do with 
    aerial navigation at that period as it was all pioneering stuff, and so was 
    Gatty but who had described aviation navigation methods earlier, I believe 
    Chichester must have been acutely aware of Gatty's methods. It would have 
    been natural to use this method for the Tasman Sea crossing.
    For some information about Gatty; See:-
    I like the quote from the above reference:-
    Tasmanian Harold Gatty was one of the many pioneers of the golden age of 
    aviation (1927 to 1938). Gatty invented or perfected many of the techniques 
    of aerial navigation. He was the first navigator to circle the earth in an 
    aeroplane in 1931 and he later created a school of navigation for American 
    military aviators. Despite his many accomplishments, he is not widely 
    remembered, but he was a celebrity in his day.
        "He can take a one-dollar Ingersol watch, a Woolworth compass, and a 
    lantern and at 12 o'clock at night he can tell you just how many miles the 
    American farmer is from the poorhouse. He can look at the Northern Star and a 
    Southern Democrat and tell you if Oklahoma will go Republican, or sane. He 
    knows the Moon like a lobbyist knows the Senators".
        - Will Rogers
    Original posting:-
    We just visited the Maritime Museum in Lisbon and they have many nav
    instruments including the actual bubble sextant invented by Gago
    Cotinho and used by him on the first flight across the south Atlantic
    in 1922. He used the "single LOP landfall procedure" to find the tiny
    Peter and Paul's rocks. This technique is usually attributed to
    Chichester for his 1931 flight across the Tasman Sea.   They also have
    the aircraft used by Cotinho on this flight.
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