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    Re: Northeast passage. was:Polar Possessions of the SU.
    From: Alexandre Eremenko
    Date: 2004 Oct 25, 16:40 -0500

    Dear George,
    While you were writing this, I posted some web reference:
    (14:59:09 EDT).
    It seems that my memories of 1960-s are not precise:-(
    The ships do pass the whole way now in one navigation.
    Moreover, apparently the modern icebreakers make
    it navigable around the year.
    Sorry, I just did not follow the development since late 60-s.
    Your guess was right: Dudinka does not freeze because of the
    powerful Enisei current.
    Which is surprising for me: Enisei itself DOES freeze,
    as almost all rivers in Russia do:-)
    I've actually traveled to many of these places in 1960-s,
    as a child, including Archangelsk, Murmansk and Dudinka.
    (On passenger cruise ships. The scientists/professors were
    in so high esteem in SU at that time, and so well-payed,
    that my father
    could afford
    such cruise with his family every summer:-)
    But the travel on Enisei was in July,
    and we were told that some tours visit Dudinka and some
    don't, depending on whether there is ICE or not! This I remember
    clearly. So I was surprised to read on the web that Dudinka
    is open the whole year now.
    On Mon, 25 Oct 2004, George Huxtable wrote:
    > After saying that I wished to know more about this topic, Alex Eremenko
    > kindly replied-
    > >After I touched this topic, I soon realize
    > >that this can be almost completely unknown
    > >in the West. For example, my Encyclopaedia
    > >Brittanica of 1960 does not mention ANY Soviet
    > >activities in the Arctic. Unfortunately all I read
    > >on the subject, I read while in Soviet Union, that is
    > >20-30 years ago, so I can rely on my memory only.
    > >If there is interest to it, I can try to find
    > >some literature here in the US.
    > If you can find any such references, Alex, I would be most grateful, if
    > only to fill in my immense area of ignorance about this matter.
    > He added, about vessels that were forced to overwinter-
    > >They had several harbors on the way to spend the winter.
    > >Dikson and Dudinka are the names that first come to my mind.
    > Does that imply that the fresh water of the Yenisei river was sufficiently
    > ice-free, even in the depths of Russian winter? Such a question betrays my
    > ignorance of Siberian geography, I fear.
    > What happens to the crews over the winter?
    > I bet that's a trade that Doug Royer is pleased not to be in!
    > Another question that I wonder about is this-
    > With the great draught of modern shipping, are there sufficiently deep
    > passages South of the islands such as Novaya Zemlya, Severnaya Zemlya,
    > Novosibirskiye Ostrova? Or must the trade route pass North of, or perhaps
    > through, these island groups? I recall that in Nansen's passage in "Fram"
    > he had to compromise, finding an ice-free path near the mainland,
    > presumably the result of the warmed freshwater summer outflow from the
    > river drainage. On the other hand, near the mainland he was bedevilled by
    > shoals and islands, presumably the result of that same outflow from those
    > great rivers. How does the modern trade route solve those problems, I
    > wonder?
    > Nuclear power does seem appropriate for an icebreaker, which requires
    > immense driving power, consuming great quantities of fuel, yet needs to
    > remain in non-stop action through the summer season without the need to
    > return to port to refuel.
    > George.
    > ================================================================
    > contact George Huxtable by email at george---.u-net.com, by phone at
    > 01865 820222 (from outside UK, +44 1865 820222), or by mail at 1 Sandy
    > Lane, Southmoor, Abingdon, Oxon OX13 5HX, UK.
    > ================================================================

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