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    Re: Navigator's Vision,Day or Night.
    From: Douglas Denny
    Date: 2009 Oct 5, 15:27 -0700

    I believe British Polaris subs used Barr and Stroud periscopes with built-in 
    sextants with pendulous reference and averaging device.
    
    No point in going outside on the fin ('conning-tower')in the cold and wet and 
    exposing the submarine needlessly when a few inches of periscope is all that 
    is needed.
    Underwater navigation since the 1960s has been SINS (ships inertial navigation 
    system), which allowed for the first time under the ice-cap navigation.
    
    I guess now based on much more accurate ring-laser gyros and sensitive 
    accelerometers; no doubt position updated to check drift every now and then 
    by GPS from a floated antenna sent up on 'a bit of string'.
    I'm not sure about modern arrangements though.
    
    Douglas Denny.
    Chichester. England.
    
    
    ============
    Original Post:
    
    Byron,
    
    Can you describe what it was like making an observation from a Polaris
    Sub? Was it done on the Conning tower or could it be done through the
    periscope?
    
    Greg
    
    
    
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