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    Re: Mid XIX century Nav
    From: Fred Hebard
    Date: 2005 Nov 20, 08:35 -0500

    Good sleuthing Frank.  Anybody have any access to Portugese accounts?
    On Nov 20, 2005, at 3:10 AM, Frank Reed wrote:
    > Bruce Stark wrote:
    > "The 1804 Moore lists  three places on Kuisin Island. "Nangasaki"
    > is given as
    > 32d, 52' N; 130d, 42' E.
    > The 1848 Norie lists eighteen places on Kiusiu Island. "Nangasaki
    > City" is
    > given as 32d, 45' N; 129d, 52' E.
    > The two navigation manuals spell  "Nangasaki" the same, but have
    > different
    > spellings for the island. "
    > And  Paul Flint asked:
    > "Is the diference in spelling significant?"
    > I very  much doubt it. I think it's nothing more than early
    > difficulties
    > transliterating  Japanese place names into European characters.
    > Later in the 19th
    > century, as  more Europeans and Americans learned Japanese and its
    > extremely
    > simple phonetic  system, that second "n" would have seemed like an
    > error. It's
    > listed as  "Nagasaki" by the beginning of the 20th century in two
    > books I
    > consulted.
    > And of course there are simple typographic errors. For example, the
    > 1826
    > Bowditch lists "Nangasky Harbor ent." at 32 44N and 129 46E. By
    > 1842 and through
    > the 1870s, the spelling in Bowditch is corrected to "Nangasaky" but
    > otherwise
    >  everything else is the same. Also, the "Kuisin" in 1804 Moore
    > which Bruce
    > quoted  is bound to be an error that occurred during the manual
    > copying process,
    >  possibly years earlier. The island in question is, of course, the
    > big island
    >  Kyushu (as it's spelled today) and the spelling in the later 19th
    > century
    > navigation manuals was "Kiusiu", which sounds about the same as
    > Kyushu. But if
    > you write down Kiusiu in script and then ask someone to copy it
    > over, you
    > could  easily wind up with Moore's "Kuisin". This same"Kuisin" is
    > in Norie in
    > 1819.
    > Here's a nice brief history of Russian naval adventures in  Nagasaki:
    > http://www.uwosh.edu/home_pages/faculty_staff/earns/askold.html
    > And  try googling "Nangasaky  NYPL":
    > http://www.google.com/search?as_q=nangasaky+nypl
    > This will take  you to a digital library site at the New York
    > Public Library
    > with a nice chart  of the harbor of Nagasaki prepared by the famous
    > Russian
    > naval officer I.F.  Kruzenshtern in about 1805. If you go to the
    > enlarged
    > version, you can just  about make out the latitude and longitude of
    > the city on the
    > chart as: 32 44  (and some seconds) N and some longitude which
    > maybe reads 230
    > 07 "W von  Greenwich". It's interesting that the Russian chart,
    > published in
    > German, is  already referencing longitudes to Greenwich at this
    > early date.
    > It seems  safe to assume that navigators near Nagasaki in the 1850s
    > could
    > have confidence  in the charted longitude to within a few miles at
    > least, and so
    > by doing some  accurate time sights with an artificial horizon from
    > some shore
    > point they could  get the chronometer error and (with a few
    > repetitions) the
    > rate as well with  good accuracy.
    > -FER
    > 42.0N 87.7W, or 41.4N  72.1W.
    > www.HistoricalAtlas.com/lunars

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