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    Re: Mid XIX century Nav
    From: Frank Reed CT
    Date: 2005 Nov 20, 03:10 EST

    Bruce Stark wrote:
    "The 1804 Moore lists  three places on Kuisin Island. "Nangasaki" is given as
    32d, 52' N; 130d, 42' E.
    The 1848 Norie lists eighteen places on Kiusiu Island. "Nangasaki City" is
    given as 32d, 45' N; 129d, 52' E.
    The two navigation manuals spell  "Nangasaki" the same, but have different
    spellings for the island. "
    
    And  Paul Flint asked:
    "Is the diference in spelling significant?"
    
    I very  much doubt it. I think it's nothing more than early difficulties
    transliterating  Japanese place names into European characters. Later in the 19th
    century, as  more Europeans and Americans learned Japanese and its extremely
    simple phonetic  system, that second "n" would have seemed like an error. It's
    listed as  "Nagasaki" by the beginning of the 20th century in two books I
    consulted.
    
    And of course there are simple typographic errors. For example, the 1826
    Bowditch lists "Nangasky Harbor ent." at 32 44N and 129 46E. By 1842 and through
    the 1870s, the spelling in Bowditch is corrected to "Nangasaky" but otherwise
     everything else is the same. Also, the "Kuisin" in 1804 Moore which Bruce
    quoted  is bound to be an error that occurred during the manual copying process,
     possibly years earlier. The island in question is, of course, the big island
     Kyushu (as it's spelled today) and the spelling in the later 19th century
    navigation manuals was "Kiusiu", which sounds about the same as Kyushu. But if
    you write down Kiusiu in script and then ask someone to copy it over, you
    could  easily wind up with Moore's "Kuisin". This same"Kuisin" is in Norie in
    1819.
    
    Here's a nice brief history of Russian naval adventures in  Nagasaki:
    http://www.uwosh.edu/home_pages/faculty_staff/earns/askold.html
    
    And  try googling "Nangasaky  NYPL":
    http://www.google.com/search?as_q=nangasaky+nypl
    
    This will take  you to a digital library site at the New York Public Library
    with a nice chart  of the harbor of Nagasaki prepared by the famous Russian
    naval officer I.F.  Kruzenshtern in about 1805. If you go to the enlarged
    version, you can just  about make out the latitude and longitude of the city on the
    chart as: 32 44  (and some seconds) N and some longitude which maybe reads 230
    07 "W von  Greenwich". It's interesting that the Russian chart, published in
    German, is  already referencing longitudes to Greenwich at this early date.
    
    It seems  safe to assume that navigators near Nagasaki in the 1850s could
    have confidence  in the charted longitude to within a few miles at least, and so
    by doing some  accurate time sights with an artificial horizon from some shore
    point they could  get the chronometer error and (with a few repetitions) the
    rate as well with  good accuracy.
    
    -FER
    42.0N 87.7W, or 41.4N  72.1W.
    www.HistoricalAtlas.com/lunars
    
    
    

       
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