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    Re: Long-range airplane navigation
    From: Glendon
    Date: 2004 Nov 28, 12:51 +1100

    ----- Original Message -----
    From: "Gennaro Sammarco" 
    Sent: Saturday, November 27, 2004 4:37 AM
    Subject: Re: Long-range airplane navigation
    > Hi everybody, I fly for Alitalia on B767, long haul flights only, and we
    > don't use sextants and celnav anymore (unluckily). Navigation is taken
    > of by 3 IRS (inertial navigation system based on laser gyro) and 2 GPS
    > avilable, because it must not be the only device for navigation but needs
    > reliable back up system.
    > With twin jets, anyway, it is still required to plot the route on a
    > nav chart and cross check the position  10 minutes after every meridian on
    > the track.
    > Some more specific navigation knowledge, celnav included, was required as
    > professional licence to upgrade to long haul flights till 1992, when its
    > necessity by law was cancelled.
    > Every night crossing, anyway, I have a star finder and a handy program on
    > palm (planetarium), and try to spot all the useful stars that I can,
    > training for celnav on my sailboat.
    > Gennaro Sammarco
    Hi Gennaro
    Thanks for your note, which I found quite interesting.
    You mention 3 IRS  . Are these run simultaneously and averaged in any way,
    or are the multiple sets of IRS's, and GPS's for backup in case of failure?
    I presume the GPS feeds back into the IRS system periodically to re-
    callibrate it, or whatever the correct expression is. Is radio direction
    also a component of navigation?
    I guess celestial has become more and more impractical , and other methods
    embraced as soon as possible, as aircraft speeds have risen. Hence the
    relatively  early (to my mind) abandonment of celestial in 1992.
    Lee Martin

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