A Community Devoted to the Preservation and Practice of Celestial Navigation and Other Methods of Traditional Wayfinding
From: John Huth
Date: 2009 Nov 17, 15:18 -0500
In this case, he uses the length of day at the summer solstice. Knowing this information, one can figure out the latitudes of the boundaries of his climes. He also uses the length of a shadow stick at the equinox at meridian passage, but there are too many inconsistencies in his account. Length of day seems better.
Does anyone know who a medieval Arab would measure the length of day? Sun-dial simply? Klepsidra? Hour glass?
Clime listing from Wadie Jwaideh’s translation of Yaqut’s Mu-Jam Al-Buldan
Longest day = 12 ½ hours at southern end (12 ¾ from al-Biruni, Tafhim)
13 hours = middle
13 ¼ = northern end
12 ½ = 9o N, 12 ¾ = 12o N
13 hours = 17o N
13 ¼ = 21o N
Southern China, Ceylon/Sarandib/Cerendin, seacoast of “Sind” , Yaman, Sea of Qulzum (Alcuzum in Marseilles tables), Abyssini, Nile, ends in the Sea of Maghrib.
Island of al-Kark, southern India, Sanaa, Aden, Hadramawt, Najran, Jurash, Jayshan, Sa’dah, Saba, Zufar, Mahrah, Uman. Lands of the Maghrib: Tabalah, Jarmi, capital city of Abyssinia, Dumqalah, capital city of Nubia, southern Berbers, Ghanah (country of the Sudan of the Maghrib) and then the Green Sea. Green Sea = surrounding ocean
Note that Cerendin is listed as 3o N in Marseilles tables.
It is the clime of Saturn, agreed by the Persians and Byzantines. Capricorn and Aquaris are its signs.
13 ¼ hours at southern end 21o N
13 ½ hours = middle 24o N
13 ¾ = northern end 28o N
Passes: China, India (northern parts – Sind, Qamrun, Kanuj), confluence of the Sea of Basrah and the Green Sea, the lands of Najd, Tihamah and Al-Bahrayn, the Sea of Qulzum, the Nile and the lands of the Maghrib.
Cities: al-Mansurah, the lands of the Tatars, Daybul. Yathrib, furthest southern section is a bit beyond Mecca, Ansina, Aswan.
It is the clime of Jupiter according to the Persians, according to the Byzantines, it is the clime of the Sun. Sagittarius and Pisces are its signs.
13 ¾ hours at southern end 28o N
14 hours = middle 31o N
14 ¼ = northern end 34o N
Kabul, Alexandria, Baghdad, Qandahar, Tyre, Beruit, Kabul, Damascus, Tyre, Jerusalem, Gaza, Qulzum, Damietta, Tangier
Clime of Mercury, Aries and Scorpio
14 ¼ hours at southern end 34o N
14 ½ hours = middle 37o N
14 ¾ = northern end 39o N
Cyprus, Rhodes, Sicily, Straits of Gibraltar, Aleppo, Antioch, Adana, Samarra, Persepolis
Clime of Jupiter, Leo
14 ¾ hours at southern end 39o N
15 hours = middle 42o N
15 ¼ = northern end 44o N
Farghanah, Samarqand, Bukhara, Sea of the Khazars, Armenia, Rumiyah al-Kubra (Rome)
Clime of Venus, Taurus and Libra
15 ¼ hours at southern end 44o N
15 ½ hours = middle 46o N
15 ¾ = northern end 47o N
Clime of Mercury (Persians), Moon (Byzantines), Gemini and Virgo
15 ¾ hours at southern end 47o N
16 hours = middle 49o N
16 ¼ = northern end 51o N
Rus, Varangians, Slavs, Suwar
“The end of this clime marks the end of the oecumene, beyond which no one is to be found save a people of no consequence. In their impoverished state and lack of refinement, they are more like wild beasts than men. “
Clim of the Moon (Persians), Mars (Byzantines), Cancer.
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