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    Re: Hello (+ a few questions)
    From: Bob Claitor
    Date: 1999 Feb 08, 18:59 EST

    Hi, Robert!
    Welcome to the Navigation mailing list.
    Re Kiribati, why not check NOAA Chart 83006, which will probably answer
    some of your questions? This is available from McCurnin Charts, Metairie,
    La., per the email address above for $16 plus $5 UPS US(more to
    Netherlands), phone # 800 638 4544.
    We supply all GPO Navigation books (less 10% to the Navigation Mailing
    List) including Navigation Rules Inland & International, Nautical Almanac,
    and CFR T33 Navigation, among others.
    Good luck and Happy Sailing,
    Bob Claitor
    > From: R.H. van Gent <r.h.vangent@XXX.XXX>
    > To: Navigation mailing list <navigation@XXX.XXX>
    > Subject: [Nml] Hello (+ a few questions)
    > Date: Monday, February 08, 1999 5:49 AM
    > Hello, my name is Robert van Gent and I am a new member to this list. I
    > am interested in the history of astronomy and its application in related
    > fields such as calendars and navigation.
    > I joined this list in the hope that questions relating to the history of
    > navigational sciences and techniques would also be discussed on this
    > platform, but if I am seriously mistaken, I would be grateful if someone
    > on this list could set me on the correct path (or should I say course?).
    > I have two questions which I hope someone on this list can help me with.
    > 1) I am trying to locate an obscure reference cited in Bowditch?s
    > _American Practical Navigator: An Epitome of Navigation_ (p. 423, 1958
    > edition; vol. II, p. 546, 1977/81 edition) to a study performed by the
    > Carnegie Institute of Washington on the application of the standard
    > formula for the correction for dip:
    >   dip (minutes of arc) = 0.97 sqrt(h[ft])
    > with 'h' denoting the height of the observer?s eye above sea level in
    > feet.
    > The constant 0.97 in the above relation depends on the local atmospheric
    > conditions and the quoted value applies to average weather conditions.
    > The studies by the Carnegie Institute appear to have been made to verify
    > how well this relation stands up to varying weather conditions and how
    > large the deviations can be in extreme cases.
    > I would be most grateful if someone on this list can provide me with a
    > more complete reference to this study.
    > 2) My second question is of a more cartographical nature. After
    > inspecting several 20th-century atlases I noticed that in each source
    > the International Date Line (IDL) is drawn along a slightly path and
    > that no two atlases agree completely. Is there such a thing as an
    > Internationally agreed Date Line? If so, who decides on these matters?
    > And what do countries who straddle the IDL have to say in this matter?
    > As everyone probably already knows the issue has become more complicated
    > since 1995 when the island Republic of Kiribati decided to shift the
    > IDL, which bisected the country, to follow its eastern boundaries. Which
    > leads to another question again: what are the internationally recognized
    > borders of Kiribati? Again different recent atlases represent them
    > slightly differently.
    > I measured a set of approximate co-ordinates for the corner points
    > defining the eastern boundary of Kiribati from the _National Geographic
    > Atlas of the World_ (6th ed., 1992). Rounded to the nearest degree, I
    > found the following latitudes and longitudes (positive in eastern
    > direction):
    >   {+2,180},
    >   {0,-179},
    >   {0,-165},
    >   {-3,-165},
    >   {-3,-160},
    >   {+2,-160},
    >   {+2,-162},
    >   {+5,-162},
    >   {+5,-154},
    >   {-8,-151},
    >   {-12,-151},
    >   {-12,-157},
    >   {-9,-157},
    >   {-9,-178}
    > Does anyone on this list know how to obtain more accurate figures?
    > Happy sailing to all.
    > ================================================================
    > * Robert H. van Gent * Tel/Fax:  00-31-30-2720269              *
    > * Zaagmolenkade 50   * E-mail:   r.h.vangent@XXX.XXX       *
    > * 3515 AE Utrecht    * Home page (under construction):         *
    > * The Netherlands    *           http://www.fys.ruu.nl/~vgent/ *
    > ================================================================
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