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    Full and by, was: Latitude by Spica
    From: Trevor Kenchington
    Date: 2004 Jan 17, 22:05 +0000

    Bruce Stark wrote:
    > I've never sailed on a square rigger, but suspected that "full and by" meant
    > something like a close reach, and steering by the wind rather than the
    > compass.
    "Full and by" is indeed a matter of sailing by the wind, though it
    refers to something more than a close reach. It is generally taken to
    mean sailing with all sails full and thus a little more free than a
    close-hauled course. "Eagle Seamanship", the textbook for cadets on the
    USCG's "Eagle", defines it as: "Sailing as close to the wind as possible
    with all sails drawing full and course changes being made to adjust for
    wind shifts. Sailing full and by allows the vessel to make as much
    ground to weather as possible without pinching." In contrast,
    "close-hauled" is defined as: "Point of sail where a vessel is sailing
    as near to the wind as possible". Smyth ("Sailor's Word Book", 1867)
    agrees with this, though in different words.
    Experience with modern yachts might suggest that there is no distinction
    between those terms. However, a square rigger can make ground to
    windward, when necessary to avoid a short tack, with the weather leeches
    of her topgallants lifting. That would be close-hauled but not full and
    by. Given sea room, she will make good more distance to windward by
    easing off the wind a little but in narrow waters that would require
    more tacking -- a major operation in a large vessel. Many a gaffer or
    even a lug-rigged dinghy will teach the same sort of distinction between
    as close as you can sail while still progressing to windward versus the
    most efficient course.
    Trevor Kenchington
    Trevor J. Kenchington PhD                         Gadus@iStar.ca
    Gadus Associates,                                 Office(902) 889-9250
    R.R.#1, Musquodoboit Harbour,                     Fax   (902) 889-9251
    Nova Scotia  B0J 2L0, CANADA                      Home  (902) 889-3555
                         Science Serving the Fisheries

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