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    Re: Ephemerides at Columbus' Time
    From: Geoffrey Kolbe
    Date: 2012 Oct 25, 18:26 +0100
    At 16:52 25/10/2012, you wrote:

    Astrology and astronomy were - of course - more closely related in those times, but Zacuto is regarded in all serious research on the history of science as an astronomer. The crucial divide would be between somebody who uses astronomical tables to make horoscopes: an astrologer, and someone who develops such tables by astronomical observations and theories: an astronomer. Zacuto clearly belongs to the second category.

    Well Wolfgang, let me twist your tail and mention Kepler. While there was no clear distinction between astronomy and astrology in the 16th and early 17th century, there was a strong division between astronomy and physics. Astronomy was a branch of mathematics within the liberal arts, and physics was a branch of natural philosophy. Kepler described his new astronomy as "celestial physics", so there would appear to be no doubting which side of the "crucial divide" Kepler was on with regard to astronomy/astrology. But Kepler was also well known as skillful, innovative and influential astrologer.....

    Incidently, the English version of the Wikipedia article on Zacuto does say he was an astrologer. ;-)

    Best wishes,

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