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    Re: Earliest marine navigation, was New discussion thread topics?
    From: Jim Thompson
    Date: 2004 Feb 12, 10:38 -0400

    My understanding of early navigation history is too thin, and I would like
    to learn more:
    http://jimthompson.net/boating/CelestialNav/NavHistory.htm
    http://jimthompson.net/boating/CelestialNav/CelestNotes/CelestNavHistory.htm
    
    From the earliest part of my timeline, so far:
    
    15,000 BCE: Humans scratched the moon cycle on bone.
    5000's BCE: Sumer's culture in what is now southern Iraq views the earth as
    flat (http://www.ethicalatheist.com/docs/flat_earth_myth_ch5.html)
    3000's BCE: Cretans crossed the Mediterranean in open galleys. How did they
    navigate?
    2000's BCE: Babylonians could predict motions of the sun, moon, planets and
    stars across the sky.
    1950-1750 BCE: Babylonians knew the Pythagorean theorem, solved linear and
    quadratic equations, and compiled tables of square and cube roots. Did they
    have some of the first written tables for celestial navigation, the earliest
    precursors of our modern almanac?
    1000-800 BCE: Polynesians used celestial observations and seabird migration.
    The constellations were well known by this time. See
    http://www.pvs-hawaii.com/navigation/hawaiian_nav.htm for an excellent
    article giving a sense of the complexity of their navigation skills.
    700 BCE: Assyrians and Babylonians define the Zodiac, and divide the
    celestial sphere into 360o.
    600's BCE (at least): Greeks navigated by the sun and stars.
    500's BCE: Greeks "developed the idea that the stars were fixed on a
    celestial sphere which rotated about the spherical Earth every 24 hours, and
    that the planets, the Sun and the Moon, moved in the ether between the Earth
    and the stars"
    (http://www-gap.dcs.st-and.ac.uk/~history/HistTopics/Cosmology.html). Thales
    used geometry to estimate distance of a ship from shore. They believe the
    earth is spherical
    (http://www.ethicalatheist.com/docs/flat_earth_myth_ch5.html).
    434 BCE: Navigation instruments still not in use at sea: "Sanskrit Mu'allim:
    He knows the course of the stars, both regular, accidental, and abnormal, of
    good and bad weather: he distinguishes regions of the ocean by the fish, the
    colour of the sea, the nature of the bottom, the birds of the mountains, and
    other indications. And the only aids he possesseth are his memory, helped by
    a pilot book, and a sounding lead or staff."
    (http://www.westsea.com/tsg3/octlocker/octchart.htm)
    
    Jim Thompson
    jim2{at}jimthompson.net
    www.jimthompson.net
    Outgoing mail scanned by Norton Antivirus
    -----------------------------------------
    
    > -----Original Message-----
    > From: Navigation Mailing List
    > [mailto:NAVIGATION-L{at}LISTSERV.WEBKAHUNA.COM]On Behalf Of Jean-Pierre
    > MARTIN
    > Yes, I am personnally and mainly intereested in the second point.
    >
    > Le mercredi, 11 f?v 2004, ? 19:27 Europe/Paris, Royer, Doug a ?crit :
    > > All,looking back over the archives I've noticed some areas of the art
    > > and
    > > science of navigation haven't been discussed by the group at all.
    > > 2. Traditional native ocean or terrestrial navigation
    
    
    

       
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