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    Dip of the horizon
    From: Alexandre Eremenko
    Date: 2004 Nov 15, 20:08 -0500

    As I understand, the dip of the horizon is the
    most important factor that limits the precision
    of measuring altitudes. (I include refraction of
    the horizon to this).
    In the Russian navigation book I read in my youth,
    a special device for measuring this dip was frequently
    mentioned. It was called "naklonomer Kavraiskogo"
    (phonetic transliteration). Kavraiskii is a name, apparently some
    expert/inventor in navigation,
    I see this name sometimes attached to
    Russian devices. The word "naklonomer" has literal translation
    I have no idea of what this device looked like, or on what
    principle it worked. I've never seen it on e-bay, for example.
    (First I thought that this is translated as "clinometer",
    but then after having seen several "clinometers" on e-bay
    I concluded that this is not so).
    The book made an impression that measuring the dip with
    "naklonomer" was more precise than using the dip tables.
    The only principle I can imagine is some "bubble arrangement",
    but I always wondered why did they have a separate device,
    rather than the usual bubble attachment to the sextant.
    Apparently this was something much more precise than the
    usual bubble attachment to a sextant.
    (I suppose the usual bubble attachment gives worse results
    than the natural horizon under normal conditions.
    On the other hand, the Russian book recommended to
    "always check the dip with "naklonomer" whenever possible,
    and to obtain high precision").
    Did any analogous devise exist in the West?
    How was it called then?
    How did it work?

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