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    Re: Aviation Bubble Sextant
    From: Gary LaPook
    Date: 2010 Aug 29, 12:37 +0200

    I have attached the refraction and coriolis correction tables from H.O. 249.
    You will note that the temp correction can be ignored except in very 
    extreme cases.. For example, only for altitudes below 10° to you apply 
    it at all. At sea level for the temperature range of  5° to 47° C there 
    is no temp correction even for low altitudes.
    Gary LaPook wrote:
    > In the past I have uploaded manuals for many types of bubble sextants 
    > and they can be found in the archives by entering the URLs below.
    > Most of them allow you to collimate the object in the center of the 
    > bubble. The only one that doesn't is the Pioneer/ A-5/ A-7.
    > You want the bubble to be about two sun diameters in size.
    > Align the body in the center of the bubble or to the horizontal right 
    > or left, any other alignment results in loss of accuracy. If you were 
    > to use the top or bottom of the bubble you would have to allow for the 
    > size of the bubble which will be different every time you form it. 
    > Trying to use a top and a bottom of the bubble sight and then average 
    > them presents two problems, the bubbles often change size while in use 
    > (some bubble designs are worse than others in the respect) and the 
    > second problem is you will have to work fast since the altitude of the 
    > body is probably changing.
    > Collimation needs to be achieved near he horizontal center of the 
    > field of view, not off to the left or right. Up or down displacement 
    > is OK but sideways displacement means that the instrument is tilted 
    > sideways resulting in inaccuracy.
    > If standing on earth the only corrections you make are index 
    > correction and refraction. No dip, no, semi-diameter, no temp and 
    > pressure ( they are too small to worry about given the inherent 
    > accuracy of bubble sextant sights.) If shooting the moon then you add 
    > in parallax in altitude.
    > If flying you need to correct for coriolis.
    > I agree with Frank and recomend "American Air Navigator" by Mattingly.
    > gl
    > A-5
    > http://www.fer3.com/arc/m2.aspx?i=109441
    > MA-1
    > http://www.fer3.com/arc/m2.aspx?i=109439
    > MA-2
    > http://www.fer3.com/arc/m2.aspx?i=109438
    > A-6
    > http://www.fer3.com/arc/m2.aspx?i=109442
    > A-12
    > http://www.fer3.com/arc/m2.aspx?i=109443
    > Balldrop
    > http://www.fer3.com/arc/m2.aspx?i=109444
    > MK IX
    > http://www.fer3.com/arc/m2.aspx?i=109447
    > MK 5
    > http://www.fer3.com/arc/m2.aspx?i=109448
    > Pioneer octant
    > http://sites.google.com/site/fredienoonan/topics/pionneer-octant
    > Frank Reed wrote:
    >> mjans, you wrote:
    >> "I have recently acquired my grandfathers WWII Bubble sextant. He has 
    >> long passed away and left me no instruction on how to use it. No 
    >> manuals, no spoken wisdom, nada... I've figured out how to make the 
    >> bubble and how to collapse it, etc.. but still haven't quite figured 
    >> out what corrections I need to apply to the sighting. When figuring 
    >> out Ha from Hs, would I need to apply an Index correction? Since 
    >> there doesn't seem to be an index mirror, I don't really see why?"
    >> Gary Lapook will no doubt have lots of advice for you, but I'll throw 
    >> in my two or three cents before he gets back.
    >> For instructions and manuals, you can pick up old air navigation 
    >> textbooks on ebay and at abebooks.com. One that I like is the 
    >> "American Air Navigator" published during the Second World War. It's 
    >> beautifully illustrated, and it is a detailed, complete account of 
    >> the methods of airborne celestial navigation. Also, ask away here on 
    >> NavList. There are plenty of people who would be happy to discuss any 
    >> questions, from the most basic to the most esoteric.
    >> Think of index error as being like "tare weight" on a scale. We need 
    >> to check the offset when the instrument should be reading zero. The 
    >> exact geometry and construction of the device is immaterial. For a 
    >> bubble sextant, make some observations for known altitudes. Gary has 
    >> often suggested using the altitude of Polaris when it is near the 
    >> meridian since it is changing very slowly and easily calculated for a 
    >> known latitude.
    >> You asked:
    >> "When taking a sighting, how big should the bubble be and where do I 
    >> place the object? In the bubble or on top?"
    >> The bubble should be about a degree or so in diameter. It doesn't 
    >> seem to be critical. You can place the object on the upper edge of 
    >> the bubble, the side of the bubble, the center of the bubble, the 
    >> lower edge of the bubble as you find convenient, but it needs to be 
    >> consistent with your measurement of the index error. For some reason, 
    >> using the center of the bubble seems not to have been recommended 
    >> historically. I don't understand that since it actually seems to give 
    >> better sensitivity in altitude observations with it centered since 
    >> the bubble acts like a little lens. On land, you can take an altitude 
    >> at the top edge of the bubble, then one from the bottom edge of the 
    >> bubble, and average the two. That yields excellent results.
    >> You asked:
    >> "This one seems to have a timer too, is there anyway to mechanically 
    >> change the timing interval? It seems to only take a sight for about a 
    >> minute!"
    >> The timer is not for taking extended sights, like LAN sights (which 
    >> you mentioned later). It's for averaging. The idea is that your hand 
    >> will be shaking, the airplane is vibrating from its engines and 
    >> machinery, and in smaller planes and/or rougher air the airplane may 
    >> be rolling and pitching around quite a bit. So you look through the 
    >> instrument and do your best to keep the Sun aligned with the bubble 
    >> for a minute (or two, depending on the type of averager). The average 
    >> altitude observed over that interval will generally be much better 
    >> than any single instantaneous altitude
    >> You asked:
    >> "Assuming I was in an old DC-3 flying at 5000 ft, taking a LAN 
    >> sight... What corrections would I apply.. I assume, temperature, 
    >> pressure and altitude (pressure or density alt??) but would airspeed 
    >> apply too? If so.. True Airspeed or Ground Speed?"
    >> Yes, temp, pressure, and altitude. You can find tables for this in 
    >> many places. There is a fairly important correction for the Coriolis 
    >> acceleration which depends on ground speed.
    >> You asked:
    >> "Would the correction be altitude only instead of Dip?"
    >> Since you don't use the visible horizon (and it's essentially never 
    >> visible from flight altitudes anyway), there is no dip correction. 
    >> The altitude correction is a correction for air density which could, 
    >> in theory, be made by adjusting the air pressure, but in practice 
    >> it's a separate correction.
    >> -FER
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