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    Re: 1901 May, 22 Lunar example by French Navy Captain Arago
    From: Paul Hirose
    Date: 2010 Feb 23, 20:31 -0800

    Antoine Couette wrote:
    > Lunar occultation of the Star currently designated as k CNC (kappa Cancri).
    > This star is listed as follows in the following star catalogs : BSC 
    > #3623 / FK5 # 1238 / SAO # 98378 / HD 78136.
    > Its 2000.0 Mean elements are as follows : R.A.=09h07m44.819s *** 
    > µRA=-0.0014s/y *** Delta=N10°40'05.44" *** µDelta -0.01 "/y no parallax 
    > quoted.
    SIMBAD says the HD number is 78316. Parallax is practically zero: only
    "Your k CNC position has been derived from the Hipparcos Catalog. From
    the NGC catalog, I find a position which is almost 1" apart in RA, which
    would already account for a possible error of 2 seconds of time in my
    results. This difference in RA between our both results is well above
    anything I could expect. Would you then indicate the relevant k CNC
    Hipparcos data (most preferably referred to 2000.0 rather than to
    1991.25), or at least be so kind as to tell me where I can find them on
    the net. BTW, what is k CNC Hipparcos Ref # ?"
    To get the Hipparcos catalog data, begin at the SIMBAD site:
    Enter kap cnc in the Identifier box.
    (Greek letter codes:
    Constellation codes:
    Most of the codes are obvious, but there are a few exceptions, e.g., pi.
    not pi for the letter π.)
    SIMBAD will give you all the designations for kappa Cancri. It also
    displays coordinates in several systems, including the ICRS at epoch
    2000. The proper motions and parallax in milli arc seconds are displayed
    To see the Hipparcos catalog entry, copy the HIP number from the Web
    page and go here:
    Paste the number into the Hipparcos Identifier box. Note that Hipparcos
    catalog gives the proper motion in RA in milli arc seconds per Julian
    year (365.25 days) in great circle units, i.e., the RA proper motions
    does not tend to increase for stars near the poles. SIMBAD uses the same
    convention. This is important because many older catalogs simply give
    the rate of change of RA per year.
    "Now, since you seem using DE405 full theory which (and unless I am
    mistaken) does include Libration, I would have thought that you would be
    using its exact Libration values which accordingly would enable you to
    compute the exact apparent topocentric difference between both
    geometrical and gravity centers."
    Actually, I used DE406, which omits nutations and librations. My program
    can use the DE405 ephemeris, but I don't know how to apply libration
    corrections, so the program ignores that data. In all the computations
    below, I will apply the simple fixed offsets to longitude and latitude.
    "IMMERSION at UT=22h43m33.4s"
    My value = 22:43:36.7 UT1, with -1.1 s delta T.
    "EMERSION at UT=23h59m31.4s"
    My value = 23:59:36.0 UT1.
    "In [Meeus] 'Astronomical Tables of the Sun, Moon, and Planets',
    Copyright 1983, ISBN 0-943396-02-6 and Edition 1983 (?) which I own and
    which is a GREAT book, we can find on pages 5-8 and 5-9 the following
    example :
    "Occultation of Aldebaran, 1997 October 19, at Palomar Mountain
    Observatory, for which we have :
    "Lat = N +33°.3562, Lon = + W 116°.8640, Altitude + 1 706 m (above
    "delta T = +68s
    "For IMMERSION, Jean Meeus finds UT = 07h44m41s, and
    "for EMERSION, he finds UT = 09h02m44s"
    I get 07:44:40.5 and 09:02:43.0.
    "I am using delta T = 62.8 s, which I am guessing/feeling is much closer
    from your own value and FER's On Line Computer value, and I reworked
    this example for 3 different altitudes :"
    In my program, delta T is a user input, so I can give it any value.
    "Alt = 0000 m / 0000 ' UT = 07h44m48.2s UT = 09h02m51.8s"
    My values: 07:44:48.2 and 09:02:51.3
    "Alt = +1760 m / 5597 ' UT = 07h44m47.3s UT = 09h02m51.2s"
    My values: 07:44:47.3 and 09:02:50.7
    "Alt = +4000 m / 13123 ' UT = 07h44m46.2s UT = 09h02m50.3s"
    My values: 07:44:46.2 and 09:02:49.8.
    In each case we agree perfectly (less than .1 s and .1") at immersion,
    and disagree by .2" at emersion. The lunar distance is changing at
    23.6"/minute at emersion, so .2" arc = .5 s time.
    Tomorrow I will compute the coordinates of kappa Cancri in several 
    reference systems (barycentric ICRS, geocentric ICRS, etc.) to help you 
    figure out why our coordinates are different.
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